Raman spectroscopy offers unique analytical capabilities to life scientists. Its non-destructive, label free characterisation of biochemistry with sub-micron spatial resolution has seen it embraced in many varied research areas. read more.


The use of inverted microscope systems (such as the XploRA INV opens up the technique for characterisation of samples which cannot be analysed on upright microscopes.  In addition to Raman analysis and 3D fluorescence FCI (Fast Confocal Imaging) standard microscope techniques can also be used on the same instrument, including epifluorescence, micro manipulators and injectors, optical tweezers, micro-fluidic cells, and specific environment enclosures.

The XploRA INV microscope for bio-spectroscopy
The XploRA INV microscope for bio-spectroscopy

Areas which benefit from Raman spectroscopy include:

  • cell research
  • disease detection
  • drug design and pharmaceutical materials
  • characterisation of drug-cell interactions
  • microbiology and cell sorting
  • cosmetics and in vivo skin analysis
  • stents and implants
White Light Image
Fluorescence FCI Image
Hyperspectral Fluorescence Image

White light image (left), fluorescence FCI image (center) and hyperspectral fluorescence image (right) of doxorubicin in a cancer cell.  The spectral image illustrates the DNA bound drug complex (DOX-DNA - red) and two cytosolic complexes of the drug (DOX – green and blue).  Data courtesy of Prof. Igor Chourpa, Université de Tours, France.

Optical image of histopathologic HE stained tissue
Raman mapped image illustrating intensity of the Amide I band
Pseudo-colour Raman maps

Analysis results for human colonic tissue section (A) optical image of histopathologic HE stained tissue, (B) Raman mapped image illustrating intensity of the Amide I band, and (C) pseudo-colour Raman maps created by using K-means cluster analysis in which each cluster (consisting of similar spectra) is assigned to one colour, and illustrates the presence of DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.  Data courtesy of Prof. Michel Manfait, Université de Reims, France.

Peak labelling showing principal chemical species
Raman spectrum of a single bacterium

Raman spectrum of a single bacterium, with peak labelling showing principal chemical species – (N) nucleic acids, (PA) phenylalanine, (C) carbohydrate, (P) proteins, and (L) lipids.  The cluster diagram on the right hand side illustrates the capability for Raman to distinguish bacteria species – (a – red) Acinetobacter sp., (b – blue) ADP1 E. Coli DH5a, and (c – green) Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25.  Data courtesy of Dr Wei Huang, University of Sheffield, UK, and Prof. Andrew Whiteley, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, UK.

Application Notes

Biology - Application Notes
  • RA04 : In vivo Raman Measurements of Human Skin.
  • RA05 : SERS analysis of single living lymphocytes.
  • RA06 : Raman analysis of single bacteria cells.
  • RA07 : Raman mapping of wheat grain kernels.
  • RA08 : SERS for Intracellular Imaging.
  • RA09 : Insights into thrombosis mechanisms using high resolution SERS.
  • RA49 : Raman Analysis of Sperm Nuclear DNA Integrity.
  • RA57 : Raman Imaging of monkey brain tissue
  • RA59 : Raman investigation of microorganisms on a single cell level.
  • RA60 : Investigating the Atherosclerosis Process by Monitoring Lipid Deposits Including Cholesterol and Free Fatty Acids.
  • RA62 : Direct identification of clinically relevant microorganisms on solid culture media by Raman spectroscopy

For a list of all available application notes please click here.


For a list of all available articles please click here.


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